The Department of Basic Education
in
Science and Technology

Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University

0ur department is called Kiso-kyoshitsu in Japanese and written 基礎教室. We have 6 courses for experiment education and have started our activity since 1971. The foundation principle is that every student can learn basic physic, chemistry, engineering and experimental techniques through practical experiences for two years.

 This means these basic knowledge and techniques acquired will be so much helpful to students no matter what they are majored in their future. Now we are trying to improve some subjects in each course for students to understand the meaning on physical, chemical phenomenon and engineering easily.

Laboratory Science for freshman

        •  Contents of Basic Physics Course

        •  Contents of Basic Chemistry Course


Laboratory Science and Technology for sophomore

        •  Contents of Advanced Mechanics Course

        •  Contents of Advanced Physics Course

        •  Contents of Advanced Chemistry Course
   
Spring term
   
Autumn term(Basic Chemical Experiments)  

        •  Contents of Advanced Industrial Engineering Course

Contents of Basic Physics Course for freshman


 Description of the course for all students enrolled in the Science and Technology program. Students individually perform experiments designed to help understand basic concepts of physics.

Modulus of elasticity


 As the representatives of the modulus of elasticity, two parameters, Young's Modulus and modulus of torsion, are selected. These two parameters are measured by bending metallic plate specimens, and by twisting metallic rod specimens, respectively.

The purpose of this theme is in understanding the relation among strain, stress, and modulus of elasticity by evaluating those of the different kind of metallic specimens.



Physical pendulum


 A simple pendulum, a pendulum consisting of a single spherical (or point) mass attached to a wire of negligible weight, is a resonant system with a single resonant frequency. A physical pendulum has extended size and is a generalization of the simple pendulum. Using a physical pendulum, which oscillates in a manner similar to a simple pendulum, the acceleration of gravity and the relevant moment of inertia can be simultaneously obtained by analyzing its motion. This theme is a good introduction of the rotational motion of a rigid body.



Oscilloscope


 Oscilloscope is one of the important equipment for measurement of electrical and electronic properties. In this section of the course, students learn how to handle and operate the oscilloscope and apply experiments of frequency characteristics of RC circuit and of ultrasonic velocity measurement.




Inductance and capacitance


 Students first make a coil by winding a copper wire round a bobbin, and a capacitor by piling aluminum foils and wrapping sheets alternatively. Then, to determine the inductance of the coil or the capacitance of the capacitor, they assemble the parts into an L-C circuit, and measure the resonant frequency.



Light


 Light has many interesting characters. In this theme, we especially study the dependence of reflection ratio on polarization by using a Laser, which is the most suitable light source for this purpose, and determine a wavelength of the He-Ne Laser.





Atomic spectrum


 Measure wave length of atomic spectrum and understand energy levels of atoms.







Photoelectric effect


 The kinetic energy of photoelectrons emitted from Sb-Cs surface is measured as a function of the frequency of the incident light. The data are used to determine the values of Planck's constant and the work function

Contents of Basic Chemistry Course for freshman


This program is the first chemical laboratory experience for freshmen. They will learn quantitative experiments, different from qualitative styles learned in high schools. Students should perform 6 subjects from among the following experiments.


  
1. Buffer solution - from which students learn the relationship of pH and ionization equilibrium, and the common-ion effect.
  2.
Synthesis of ferrite powder - preparation of ceramic material is experienced.
  3.
Synthesis of ethyl acetate - students will learn an organic synthesis of the liquid compound, along with chemical equilibrium in organic chemistry.
  4.
Reaction heats - from this theme, fundamental thermochemistry is learned
  5.
Synthesis and property of methacryl polymer - this is a fundamental and joyful polymer chemistry.
  6.
Depression of the freezing point - solution property is learned by comparison of solute-concentrations.
  7.
Hydrolysis of esters - from which students understand the concept of reaction rates.

Contents of Advanced Mechanics Course for sophomore

Analog Operational Circuits


 Using operational amplifier(OP Amp.), mathematical operations such as addition and integration can be realized as electric circuits. In this experiment, dynamical systems described as differential equations are designed and implemented by circuit using OP Amp. Then, the frequency response of the system is measured. Through the practice, the realization of dynamical system and its response depending on input frequency is studied.



Transfer of heat


 The terms "temperature" and "heat" are often used unconsciously in our daily lives, but these terms are of fundamental importance in thermodynamics as well as in heat transfer courses. This subject in the present laboratory course, therefore, aims to let the students understand some basic backgrounds of the important concepts on temperature, heat transfer, and thermophysical properties including thermal conductivity by adopting a metallic rod as the thermodynamic system under the thermal equilibrium and/or steady state heating condition.




The measurement of stress and strain


 The tension test (also known as a tensile test) usually provides a good measure of the relative ability of materials to resist statically applied stresses at moderate temperatures. The objective of the present experiment is to learn the method on the standard tension test used for the estimating static mechanical properties of materials.




Experiment in Fluid


 The effect of fluid viscosity is explored in the flow through a pipe. The flow is visualized either by ink or by hydrogen bubbles: The former is used to generate streak-line for observing the transition from laminar to turbulent flow at various Reynolds numbers, while the latter provides time-line to show instantaneous velocity profile across the pipe so that the non-slip condition occurring at the pipe wall is confirmed. Velocity measurements by a laser Doppler anemometer and by an ultrasonic velocity profile monitor are also performed.





Metal Cutting Works


 Machine parts are produced through various manufacturing processes such as casting, injection molding, plastic working, cutting(machining) and welding.

The purpose of this task work is to understand the importance of manufacturing thorough the practical experiences in metal cutting works which is one of the basic manufacturing processes.

Contents of Advanced Physics Course for sophomore

Interference of sound waves


 The frequency of sound is evaluated from the interference of sound waves by using the Quink's tube. From the observation of the period of beating sound, the frequency difference between two tones very nearly equal in frequency can be measured. Filtering of waves is also demonstrated using the Quink's tube. The experiments on sound wave promote a better understanding of the concept for the interference of waves.



Polarization


 When linear polarized light incidents into an optically uniaxial crystal, the transmitted light has ellipsoid polarization. It occures because the incident light consists of ordinary ray and extra-ordinary ray, which proceed with different velocity in the crystal.

In the experiment, the crystal is set between a pair of polarizers attending to rotation of the crystal axis to the incident polarization direction, and then the polarization of the transmitted light is measured.

We study the properties of polarizer and optically uniaxial crystal, and also the physical concept of polarization through the experiment.



Spectroscopy


 Spectroscopy is one of the useful means to study the basic properties of matters from the viewpoint of interactions between light and material. It is indispensable for modern science. In this experiment, we study basic techniques of spectroscopy using a various kind of light sources ( Na, Cd, Hg and W lamps), a monochromater and a photodetector. The measurement of the character of optical filters gives us knowledge of correlation among these spectroscopic apparatus. Through this experiment to observe phenomena of light absorption and emission, we understand what spectroscopy is.



Fourier Analysis and Synthesis


 The purpose of the experiment is to understand the idea of Fourier expansion for periodical waveform of time. At first, sinusoidal and triangular waves, and beating wave are expanded into a summation of sinusoidal components of frequency (Fourier series). After then, the waveforms are synthesized from the Fourier spectra, and compared with the original waveforms.

  



Series resonance in an electric circuit


 We study resonance phenomenon in a serial electric circuit so as to understand resonances which is frequently observed in many physical phenomena. Resonance curve occurred in L-C-R serial circuit is measured as a function of circuit elements. The value of permittivity of dielectrics is estimated from the electro static capacity. This experiment makes notions about behavior of reactance and resistance of the impedance and also that of the quality factor Q.



Michelson interferometer


 Optical interference phenomena are studied through the interference fringe observation, by using the Michelson interferometer. The methods are applied to measure laser wavelength and relative refractive index of air.



Nuclear Magnetic Resonance


The experimental technique of the nuclear magnetic resonance which is also applied to "Magnetic resonance imaging" (MRI) that plays a major role to the early detection of cancer is a comparatively new technology that has developed since about 20 mid-centuries. Here, we study the principle in that fundamental part and actually experience through the basic experiment.


Contents of Advanced Chemistry Course for sophomore




Spring term 》

C-1 Spectrophotometry


 Spectrophotometry, which utilizes optical absorption, is one of the important methods for chemical analysis. In this experiment, we study the principle and method of spectrophotometry by determination of copper.



C-2 Gas Chromatography


 We understand gas chromatography, which is widely used as popular instrumental analysis, by qualitative and quantitative analysis of primary alcohols.



C-3 pH and Electrolytic Dissociation Equilibrium


 The concentration of proton (pH) usually acts an important role on various chemical reactions in aqueous solutions. We measure variation of pH during neutralization titration and understand electrolytic dissociation of acids and hydrolysis of salts.

   

C-4 Electromotive Force and Equilibrium Constant


  In this experiment, electromotive force of the Daniel cells is measured to determine the equilibrium constant for the chemical reaction in the cells. We also study the Nernst equation by measurement of the electromotive force for concentration cells of copper ions.

   

Contents of Advanced Chemistry Course for sophomore



Autumn term 》

   Basic Chemical Experiments

 Chemistry is often refered to as a field that must be study step by step. You must be understand this meaning when you graduate from the department. The chemical experiment turns the knowledge you learn into the real one through experiences. For example, you can easily imagine how the real scenery is different from the one that you created in your mind with the help of maps or photographs. The chemical experiment is a chance to meet the reality. The accumulation of such experiences brings up real chemists. The contents of “Basic Chemical Experiments” is designed to help you learn the basic knowledge of real chemistry leading you to full-fledged chemists. Of course, to learn only the contents of this text is not enough. However, it concludes basic knowledge in a variety of fields such as inorganic, organic, polymer, electrochemical,and analytical chemistry, that should be studied in the second year when majoring in chemistry. Keeping this in mind, we hope you engage in a series of experiments in “Basic Chemical Experiments” in order to transform your knowledge of chemistry into the real one for yourself.

Redox titration


 The redox titration using KMnO4 is understood on the basis of the electrochemical reaction equilibrium. Oxalic acid is used as the primary standard solution for determining the concentration of KMnO4 solution used as the redox titration standard. The unknown concentrations of the samples containing H2O2 and Fe2+ can be titrated with the KMnO4 standard solution.

 



Atomic emission analysis (AEA)


 An atomic emission analysis (AEA) was used for the determination of sodium and potassium in the artificial serum samples. The basic characteristics of AEA are understood based on the ground and excited state energy equilibrium. The photo emissions of 3P→3S and 4P→4S can be used for determining the Na+ and K+ concentrations of the serum samples, respectively.

 



Visible spectra of transition metal complexes


 In this experimental study, the visible absorption spectra of transition metal (Cr3+) complexes as well as the organic compound, "indigocarmine", are measured. Students will interpret the observed spectra of the complexes based on the "ligand field theory" and comprehend the absorption bands observed in the visible region that originate from the d-d transitions associated with the centered metal (Cr). The significant differences between the absorbance intensities of the Cr-complexes and "indigocarmine" are also analyzed using the following spectroscopic selection rules for electronic transitions: (1) Laporte rule (parity conservation),and (2) Spin forbidden rule (spin conservation).



Conductivity of electrolyte solutions


 When ion exists in solution, the solution has an electrical conductivity. The conductivities of electrolyte solutions such as Pb(NO3)2, Na2SO4 and NaNO3 are measured using a conductivity sensor with a Kohlrausch bridge. The molecular conductivities and equivalent conductivities of each electrolyte are calculated. Finally, the solubility of a poorly soluble salt such as PbSO4, which is the precipitate from a mixture of Pb(NO3)2 and Na2SO4 solutions, is estimated based on the limiting equivalent conductivity values of each electrolyte.



Reaction rate for the formation of alky bromide


 This experimental section introduces the fundamental kinetics for a first order reaction. The rate constants at different temperatures are measured for the formation reaction of n-butyl bromide from n-butyl alcohol. Based on the Arrhenius equation, the rate constants are plotted as a function of the inverse absolute temperature to obtain the apparent activation energy and the frequency factor. The rate constants are also estimated by Guggenheim・s method. In addition, the formation of n-butyl bromide from n-butyl alcohol is compared with the formation of tert-butyl bromide from tert-butyl alcohol in order to discuss both reaction mechanisms and kinetics.



Mutarotation rate of D-glucose


 The principle and the measurement method of the specific rotatory power using Mitscherlrich・s saccarimeter are learned in this experiment. First, the rotation angle of the polarization plane for sucrose is measured in order to calculate the specific rotatory power. Next, α-D-glucose and β-D-glucose are dissolved in water and then mutarotations observed. The time dependence of the specific rotatory power is measured in order to estimate the rate constants from α-D-glucose to β-D-glucose and vice versa.  From these values, the equilibrium constant is calculated to determine the molar ratio of α-D-glucose to β-D-glucose in the equilibrium state.  

   

Synthesis and Identification of Azulactone


 Azlactone is very useful for the synthesis of an α-amino acid having aromatic moieties. In this experiment, we synthesize the azlactone via the condensation of p-nitrobenzaldehyde and N-acetylglycine. The purities of the crude and recrystallized azlactones are checked by TLC (thin layer chromatography) and the melting point analyses. Furthermore, the IR (infrared absorption) spectra of the starting materials, the authentic azlactone, and the synthesized azlactone are measured and assigned. As a result of these analyses, the synthesized azlactone is identified. A series of these fundamental experiments would deepen the interest and understanding of organic syntheses.




Preparation and size distribution of polymer particles


 We study the suspension polymerization through the experiments for preparation of polymer particles using methyl methacrylate as an example. The distribution of particle size is obtained by analyzing the microscopic photo of the polymer particles prepared. We learn the number average particle diameter(Dn), the weight average particle diameter(Dw), the molecular weight distribution (Dw/Dn) and the coefficient of variation (CV value).  Influences of the reaction conditions on these parameters are discussed. At the same time, we study various kinds of polymer-tacticity, such as, isotactic, syndiotactic, atactic polymers conformations with the aid of the ball-and-stick molecular model.

Contents of Advanced Industrial Engineering Course for sophomore

An Experiment of Work Flow System


 Human operator gets the information about a system via the panel. In this experiment, you evaluate various kinds of the panels, using the tachistoscope. And you discuss, from the point of view of Human Factors/Ergonomics, how to design the panels so that human operator can get the visual information correctly and effectively.



An Evaluation of Control Panel on Human Factors


 To understand principles of creating stable flow without delay and wait in process consisted from work system of production or service, multiple simple processes are considered. The purpose of this experiment is to get idea about influences to flow phenomena of some fundamental factors such as processing lot size; control method for flow timing.



Computation Complexity


 The aim of this experiment is to understand methods and importance of analyzing computational complexity. The qualities of some algorithms have been measured analytically by means of the concept of computational complexity. The complexity of computation is usually estimated with the cost of resources (memory area and CPU time) for execution. In this exercise, there are analyzing computational complexities of some well-known sorting algorithms and confirming validity of the results by comparing with experimentally quantified cost, which is the number of basic operations executed on PC under many different conditions.

   



Business Decision Making Game


 In this experiment a student learns how to solve some business decision problems. The main subject is the profitability. The topics are break-even point, supply and demand and the most profitable investment under a limited fund. The interactive program with a simulation experiment is designed on PC. The student can carry on the experiment though it was a game.

  



Graphical data analysis


 The aim of this experiment is to learn the usefulness of graphical methods of data analysis. By drawing statistical graphs, such as box-whisker chart, scatter-plot, radar chart and so on, and comparing the pattern of them to the numerical information, you can learn what type of information can be gotten by these graphical methods.



An Experiment on Geometric Probability


 This experiment is on stochastic geometry and geometric probability. First, the Bertrand's paradox on random line systems is demonstrated by use of computational simulations. Through the simulations, students shall understand the way of generating random lines associated with the measure invariant under the group of motions in 2-dimension space. Next, we introduce the Crofton's formula and its corollaries, which will be important tools to analyze stochastic objects. Finally, we introduce the Koshizuka's formula to estimate the road length in arbitrary given area, which is one of an interesting urban-engineering-oriented applications of the Crofton's formula, and check its accuracy by use of real road network data.

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